Who Said There Would Be No Math?

Title: Who Said There Would Be No Math?

Bible Book: Matthew

Author: Franklin L. Kirksey

Subject: Cults; Math; Numerology; Teacher's Day



Today is August 9, 2009, and we observe “Teacher Recognition Day” at First Baptist Church of Spanish Fort. On this day in history, August 9, 1974, Gerald R. Ford (1913-2006) became the 38th President of the United States of America.

Comedian Cornelius Crane “Chevy” Chase portrayed President Ford in the 1976 Presidential Debate. The moderator asked a question about the economy and unemployment. In response, Chase delivered his memorable line, “It was my understanding there would be no math.” Soon thereafter, other comedians used this line for a laugh, and it still lives in television commercials in a slightly different form today.

This past year I discovered a book titled Miracle Math by Harry Lorayne while perusing the Daphne Public Library. Lorayne is a memory-training specialist and author of Ageless Memory: Simple Secrets for Keeping Your Brain Young and other books on memory.

Many of us must confess with someone who writes, “My short-term memory is not as sharp as it used to be. Also, my short-term memory's not as sharp as it used to be.” If only we could remember to read Harry Lorayne’s book titled Ageless Memory.

Harry Lorayne begins his book titled Miracle Math, with the following Scriptural citation: “‘The very hairs of your head are all numbered.’ --Matthew X: 30”1

When you study the Bible you find math, in fact, there is a book called Numbers.

Dr. Ed F. Vallowe shares in the Foreword of Biblical Mathematics: Keys to Scripture Numerics: How to Count the Bible, “One out of every five scriptures in the Bible contains a number.”2

Three friends from the local congregation were asked, “When you're in your casket, and friends and congregation members are mourning over you, what would you like them to say?”

Artie said: “I would like them to say I was a wonderful husband, a fine spiritual leader, and a great family man.”

Eugene commented: “I would like them to say I was a wonderful teacher and servant of God who made a huge difference in people's lives.”

Carl said: 'I'd like them to say, “Look, he's moving!”

Dr. Michael Duduit sent the following in Preaching Daily: Resources by Pastors for Pastors from Preaching.com, “This Week's Laugh: Proverbs from Fourth Graders”. “A 4th-grade teacher collected well-known proverbs. She gave each child in the class the first half of the proverb, and asked them to come up with the rest. Here [are a few of] what they came up with:

You can't teach an old dog... math. A penny saved is... not much.

If at first you don't succeed... get new batteries.”3

"IF AT FIRST YOU DON'T SUCCEED, TRY, TRY AGAIN. Don't give up too easily; persistence pays off in the end. The proverb has been traced back to 'Teacher's Manual' (1840) by American educator Thomas H. Palmer and 'The Children of the New Forest' (1847) by English novelist Frederick Maryat

(1792-1848). Originally a maxim used to encourage American schoolchildren to do their homework. Palmer (1782-1861) wrote in his 'Teacher's Manual': 'Tis a lesson you should heed, try, try again. If at first you don't succeed, try, try again.’ The saying was popularized by Edward Hickson (1803-70) in  his 'Moral Song' (1857) and is now applicable to any kind of activity.”4

Arithmetic also known as mathematics is a pivotal part of the three R’s of education, namely, “Readin’, ‘Ritin’, and ‘Rithmetic”.

Dr. Rudolf Flesch (1911-1986) writes about “The Three R’s—a Refresher Course” in The Art of Clear Thinking. Flesch shares, “Now to the Third R—‘Rithmetic. Let’s start with the fact that practically all the mathematics you learned in school is of no use to you today. Algebra, geometry, trigonometry— you hardly remember what it was all about. Arithmetic, though does come up sometimes in your life, and you wish you remembered it a little better.”5

Adrian Berry tells, “The Italians, and particularly the Venetians, early realized the importance of arithmetic. In contacts around the Mediterranean and Barbary coasts, Italian merchants became exposed to the Hindu-Arabic numerals commonly used in Europe.

In 1202 a book, Liber abaci, was published where a section was devoted to the commercial applications of arithmetic. The message was well-received in the merchant houses of Pisa, Genoa and Venice. Hindu-Arabic symbols soon began replacing Roman numerals as the use of the abacus gave way to computations with pen and ink.

The Italians not only adapted the new methods for their commerce, they also became innovators— the practice of double entry bookkeeping originated in Italy at this time. In this technique, each entry is recorded twice, on one page under a debit heading and opposite under a credit title.”6

Recently, [June 12, 2009] I discovered a miniature red and white abacus at the Village Mart at the Westminster Village in Spanish Fort. Suddenly my mind went back to the time I was in the Third Grade at Greystone Christian School in Mobile, Alabama. Our teacher, Mrs. Flora Holston, introduced us to the abacus. She made learning fun years before it was supposed to be. We quickly learned that an abacus was not a toy as it appeared, but a tool.

Ruth Gleeson Gallagher and James Colvin list abacus first in Words Most Often Misspelled and Mispronounced. The pronunciation is (ab a kus) and the plural form is (ab a si).7 Brian Foley (a.k.a. "Professor Homunculus"), creator and web manager of MathMojo.com, more precisely explains, “the plural of abacus is abaci, and is pronounced ab' ba see. It's from the Latin. The Oxford English Dictionary gives the plural as ‘abacuses.’ Doesn't exactly roll of the tongue, though, does it?”8

The Reader’s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary defines abacus as “a calculating device with counters, sliding grooves, or on rods or wires. They also allow for the plural form to be abacuses or abaci.”9

According to WORDAGE.INFO an abacus is “a calculator that performs arithmetic functions by manually sliding counters on rods or in grooves a tablet placed horizontally on top of the capital of a column as an aid in supporting the architrave. . .”10

Brian Foley explains, “The abacus is a fun tool to do math with. It helps you learn all about the base ten system (which is the one we use for ordinary math), patterns among numbers, and how to do math in your head. It is probably the best tool in the world for most people to get a good grasp of numbers with.

‘Why should I learn to use an abacus, when I can use a calculator?’ is one of the questions I hear most. People think that the abacus is just ‘some exotic toy.’ That would be like calling Galileo just ‘some Italian guy.’

The main reason to learn how to use an abacus, is because it will teach you how to manipulate numbers - how each digit relates to the others, and how to use that knowledge to get very good at understanding how to do all the major operations - addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division.

The abacus will also give you a handle on how base systems work. For instance, you can use an abacus to do math in the decimal system (which we use in everyday math) and the binary system (which is used in computer science).

Understanding decimals becomes a breeze when you know how to use an abacus. Exponents and square roots can also be done with a little practice.

‘Is it hard to use an Abacus?’ Not at all! It's a lot easier than learning the way you already learned math.

‘How can I start learning how to use an Abacus?’ Of course, the best way is if you have a real  abacus. But you can start here by learning the principle of how an abacus works. The best way to learn that, is to learn a little history of the abacus. If you look at the three abaci ("abaci" is the plural of abacus) you will see that each have some differences. [Brian Foley illustrates the three abaci on the website.] It took thousands of years to develop from the abax to the soroban.”11

I. The Abacus Is A Mathematical Machine.

There are several things we can say about the abacus. For example the abacus is a mathematical machine. “Have you ever wondered about where the mathematical machine, the abacus came from, or what it is commonly used for? These are some questions that will be answered in my paper. My paper is generally about the abacus’s beginning, its earlier forms, what it is used for today and in the past, how well it works, and how it has changed through the ages.” I discovered this website by a Google™ search related to the word “abacus” and found it quite informative.

The author continues, “The abacus is perhaps the earliest computer ever known to man, after the ten fingers on you hands of course. The abacus was created because being limited to counting to ten, just wasn’t enough. Some of the earliest versions of the abacus, are sometimes called are called Counting Boards. Counting boards were originally made of wood, metal, or stone. They often have ten, straight, parallel, rows horizontal with nine pebbles or marbles in each row. The abacus closely resembles that description, however it has stings or wire between the rows, and the “pebbles” is threaded on the sting.

The basics of using the counting board goes like this. There are nine pebbles in each row. The pebbles in all of the rows start out on the far left of the board. To count you move a pebble from the left side of the board to the right side to count out “one.”

This may sound like a pointless item now that we have quick calculators, but when there were no calculators that abacus was really helpful and quick if you were good with it. It could be so fast that it beat a computer in a math race. The math race was held on 11-11-49, in Tokyo, Japan in front of an audience. The abacist and the computer operator were each given 50 problems in addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The abacist won all of the events except the multiplication. To prove it wasn’t a fluke, a different abacist and a different computer operator faced each other in another math tournament, this time the abacist won all of the events. Then, in 1959 when computers had significantly improved their speed in calculation, another math race was held. The abacist beat the computer operator again.

As you can see the abacus has made a difference in the past and today. It has also changed much through the ages. It went from crude counting boards with pebbles in grooves, to heavily decorated (and expensive) abaci with beads that slide on solid columns.

In almost all of the Oriental Nations an abacus is used for teaching math. It is started at the age of seven. One of the reasons, is that small children like playing with the beads, and their interest in the abacus grows when they find out. . .”12

Grace Church School located in New York City sponsors the ABACUS International Math Challenge which is open to any child, anywhere in three specific age groups. From the website we learn the following, “Science and math teacher, Tivadar Divéki posts eight problems a month in each age group. Students are asked not only to solve the problems but also to present the reasoning in their solutions. If a student submits an incorrect solution or is simply having trouble with a problem, a teacher will offer hints as to how to go about solving the problem, giving students multiple chances to succeed.

The Abacus Project, launched in 1997 by Mr. Divéki, is based on a printed journal that originated in Hungary over 100 years ago. The original journal focused on gifted students--participants over the years included Edward Teller, Leo Szilard, John von Neumann and other notables in physics, computer science and mathematics--and showed that mathematical talent can be stimulated and developed through individual attention, instant feedback, and challenging subject matter with flexible levels of difficulty. The advent of the World Wide Web has made the same methodology available to a much broader range of students.”

The Twelfth Annual ABACUS International Math Challenge, started in September 5, 2008 and ended on April 30, 2009. The website expresses special thanks to NASA for its support for this annual educational endeavor.13

II. The Abacus Is A Mathematical Marvel.

Not only is the abacus a mathematical machine it is truly a mathematical marvel. Maria Christensen shares in her article titled “Asia’s Brightest Moments”, “The abacus was a mathematical marvel which allowed all sorts of complex operations.”14 For example, they were used to add, subtract, multiply and divide.

In an article titled “Abacus: Mystery of the Bead”, Totton Heffelfinger and Gary Flom explain, “During the 11th century, the Chinese abacus, or suan pan, was invented. The suan pan is generally regarded as the earliest abacus with beads on rods. The Mandarin term suan pan means calculating plate. A suan pan has 2 beads above a middle divider called a beam (a.k.a. reckoning bar) and 5 beads below.

Use of the suan pan spread to Korea, and then to Japan during the latter part of the 15th century. The Japanese termed the abacus a soroban. Originally the soroban looked very much like its Chinese cousin having two beads above the reckoning bar and five beads below. Around 1850, it was modified to have only one bead above the reckoning bar while maintaining the five beads below. It was further changed by removing one lower bead in 1930. This one bead above and four beads  below (1/4) arrangement remains as the present day Japanese soroban construction. In 1928, soroban examinations were established by the Japanese Chamber of Commerce and Industry. Over one million candidates had sat for the exams by 1959.”15

III. The Abacus Is A Mathematical Mainstay.

Upon further research we discover that the abacus is not only a mathematical machine and a mathematical marvel, it is a mathematical mainstay. Hal Miller shares the following in The Complete Book of Everyday Christianity, “Humans have used computing devices for millennia. The abacus is a common example, but the fact that we use a base-10 numbering system surely indicates that the fingers predated even that as a tool for computation. Through the years we have invented an amazing array of machines to help us compute things more rapidly and more accurately.”16

Dr. Robert Duncan Culver retired Professor of Theology, who taught at Wheaton College and Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, shares the following in his Systematic Theology: “The coherence of all authentic abstract truths in a single system is further evidence that the God of creation is one. These abstract data exist quite apart from the people who discover them. In the small business houses of all China, people figure the bills of customers on a frame of parallel spokes on which wooden rings are moved, called an abacus. The nearby grocery has replaced the mechanical cash register with a computerized machine. Our paint merchant uses a hand-held electric calculator. My mother uses penciled figures on paper to add up her bills. (I let my wife figure them out!) The data and results of all mathematics, however, (4 multiplied by 3; 10 plus 2; 20 minus 8; 72 divided by 6: all yield the number 12) are invariable and universal.

The same is true of formal logic as taught in the schools of philosophy, whether the classical system of Aristotle's or modern symbolic logic. These are true laws of reality. They can be discovered and formulated but never invented. Deduction and induction are nothing but aspects of one all-inclusive system of abstract truth. Abstract truth underlying or accompanying all other truths is a universal network, existing in perfection. This system sets bounds and binds us all. There is no rational existence as mankind without submitting to it. We call people crazy who do not. If this system of universal abstract truth is attributable to the mind(s) that created us, not to the rational discoverers of it, is it not rational, within the system of rational truth, to attribute it to One rather than to many?”17

Dr. Paul Lee Tan shares, “Argonne National Laboratory, near Chicago, is one of America's major atomic research and development establishments. This laboratory can trace its history to the beginning of organized nuclear research in the United States. Here, a staff of 1200 scientists and engineers devote themselves to scientific research.

A glass case in a basement room helps keep the scientists humble. The case stands next to an electronic computer and bears the inscription: ‘In case of emergency, break glass.’ Inside the case is a simple abacus, like those used in Oriental lands for centuries. The abacus is a stark reminder that scientific instruments cannot cope with every emergency of life.”18


Dr. John J. Davis, professor of Old Testament and Hebrew at Grace Theological Seminary, shares the following in Biblical Numerology: A Basic Study of the Use of Numbers in the Bible, “While the Bible does not contain large quantities of mathematical data, that which it does contain is accurate and trustworthy. The Bible is not a text book of either science or mathematics but when it does treat such subjects, it does so with complete dependability. Furthermore, in the light of ancient history, one should not expect the appearance of mathematical reasoning in the early chapters of the Bible, for such reasoning, as now understood by pure mathematicians, is the contribution of the Greek- speaking communities of the Mediterranean about 600 B.C.”19

Dr. Davis further states, “Only the simplest rules of arithmetic can be illustrated from the Old Testament. Addition is used in Genesis 5:3-31 and in Numbers 1:20-46. Subtraction is used, it may be assumed, by Abraham in Genesis 18:28ff. Knowledge of the process of multiplication is evident in Leviticus 25:8 and Numbers 3:46ff. Division is used in Numbers 31:27ff. According to Moulton ‘arithmetical processes are not represented in the New Testament.’”20

Dr. J. C. Keister contradicts Moulton’s claim in his intriguing essay titled, “Math and the Bible”. Here Dr. Keister states, “This author has scanned the Bible to take specific note of mathematical references and various mathematical problems. There are at least 150 references to arithmetic and geometry in the Old and New Testaments.”21 The editor of the essay shares, “It is believed (by this author at least) that since the ultimate source of truth is the Bible, there is a real need to start with the Bible to see what can be established as foundational in mathematics.”22

The Bible warns about those who employ mathematical functions to their own peril. For example, some add to or take away from the Word of God. John presents a two-fold divine warning recorded in Revelation 22:18-19 which reads: “For I testify to everyone who hears the words of the prophecy of  this book: If anyone adds to these things, God will add to him the plagues that are written in this book; and if anyone takes away from the words of the book of this prophecy, God shall take away his       part from the Book of Life, from the holy city, and from the things which are written in this book.”

Someone uses mathematical functions to demonstrate the following dangers of the cults. For example, we may summarize the religious or spiritual deviation of cults from the central teachings of the Christian faith as follows: “Cults add to the Word of God by claiming to have additional  revelations of truth or the cult leader’s correct interpretation of truth. [Dr. Billy Graham shares the following in his column titled “Cults keep people from God”, “The Bible alone is God’s Word — but cults add to it or substitute other books in its place.”23]

Cults subtract from the deity of Jesus Christ by claiming that He is only “a god” or by separating the divine and human natures of Jesus Christ. Cults deny the doctrine of the Trinity and commonly hold to ancient forms of Modalism and Docetism. [In a footnote they offer these definitions: Modalism is the heretical teaching that Father, Son, and Holy Spirit are not three persons but three “modes” or forms of God’s activity. Docetism is false view that “Christ had no real but only an apparent body and that He therefore did not really suffer but only apparently…”]

Cults multiply the requirements of salvation with an emphasis on obedience to cult teachings and practices.

Cults divide a member from God by laying claim to an exclusive possession of the truth and seek to separate a member from any relationships with other people who are not accepting of the cult’s truth.”24

Dr. Graham also issues the following warning about cults, “Don’t be misled by this group’s friendliness. Instead, turn to Christ and put your faith and hope in him alone. Then ask God to guide you to a church that faithfully teaches the Bible, so you can grow in your relationship to Christ.”25


Dr. James Merritt, former president of the Southern Baptist Convention, shared the following ten years ago in a message titled “Don’t Believe The Lie About The Truth”, “The pollster, George Barna, has discovered that although 88% of people in evangelical churches say the Bible is the infallible word of God, 53% say there is no such thing as absolute truth!”26

Dr. Merritt also shares, “Perhaps you have heard about the teacher who said to his class, ‘You can know nothing for certain.’

One student responded, ‘Teacher, are you sure?’ He said, ‘I'm certain.’"27

In a message titled “The Sin of Tolerance”, Dr. Billy Graham shares the following examples of intolerance, “Take mathematics. The sum of two plus two is four—not three-and-a-half. That seems very narrow, but arithmetic is not broad. Neither is geometry. It says that a straight line is the shortest distance between two points. That seems very dogmatic and narrow, but geometry is intolerant.”28

The Bible is absolute truth! Jesus said, “Sanctify them by Your truth. Your word is truth” (John 17:17). Observe that He did not merely say, “Your word [contains] truth.” Jesus said, “I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father except through Me” (John 14:6). Note that He did not say, “I am [a] way, [a] truth, and [a] life.”

Dr. Billy Graham shares the following in a column titled “Make your life a witness for Christ to troubled students”:

“Q: I'm a high school teacher, and it's been a very discouraging year for me. I can't even count the number of my students who've gotten pregnant, or are on drugs, or get drunk every weekend, etc. I can't talk about Christ in the classroom, and yet I know He's the only answer. What should I do?

Sometimes I wonder if I should just quit. —M.W.

A: I sincerely hope you won't leave your position — not unless God clearly leads you to step away from it. After all, the situation in your school may be bad — but how much worse would it be if you (and others like you) weren't there? Jesus said, "You are the salt of the earth. ... You are the light of the world" (Matthew 5:13, 14).

What can you do? First, you can pray — and so can people in your church and teachers in your school who share your concern. Don't fight this battle alone; others share your concern, and you need to stand together. Pray for your students, and pray also for your principal and other administrators.

Then ask God to make your life a witness for Christ — even if you can't speak openly about Him. Do others see Christ's joy and peace in you? Do your students sense His love and compassion through you? Find ways to confront them with the dangers they face, and urge your school to develop programs to combat these.”29

“Your best resolutions must wholly be waived;

Your highest ambitions be crossed.

You never need to think you will ever be saved,

‘Til first you’ve learned you are lost.” –Author Unknown

If you have never repented of your sin and trusted in the Lord Jesus Christ alone for salvation, you may silently pray the following:

Dear God, I know that I am a sinner by nature and by choice. (Romans 3:23) I confess that I have sinned against You in thought, word and deed. I believe that Your Son, Jesus, died on the cross to save me from my sin, that He was buried and that He rose from the dead on the third day. (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) I ask Him to forgive my sin and to come into my heart and life to be my Savior, Lord and King. (Romans 10:9-10) Thank You for forgiving me of my sin and for giving me eternal life. (1 John 5:10-13) In Jesus’ name. Amen.

Dr. J. Vernon McGee (1904-1988) preached a sermon titled “Faith + 0 = Salvation”, based on Galatians 3:26, which says, “For you are all sons of God through faith in Christ Jesus.” While  warning against “easy-believism” in this message Dr. McGee also shares the testimony of Martin Luther (1483-1546) and John Wesley (1707-1791). Dr. McGee explains, “Our subject could be called “Faith Minus Works Equals Salvation.”30

Who said there would be no math?


1Harry Lorayne, Miracle Math: How to Develop a Calculator in Your Head (Lyndhurst, NJ: Barnes & Noble, 1992), p. 1

Available from: http://books.google.com/books? id=VQ9Rxw1jNGEC&pg=PP1&dq=miracle+math#v=onepage&q=&f=false    Accessed:    08/03/09

2Ed F. Vallowe, Biblical Mathematics: Keys to Scripture Numerics: How to Count the Bible (Forest Park, GA: Ed. F. Vallowe Evangelistic Association, 1992) from the Foreword

3Michael Duduit ,Preaching Daily: Resources by Pastors for Pastors from Preaching.com, Thursday, July 09, 2009, received via e-mail from Preaching Daily “Today's Extra...This Week's Laugh: Proverbs from Fourth Graders” from The Daily Dilly, Available from: http://magazine.preaching.com/subscribe/ Accessed: 07/23/09

4Gregory Y. Titelman, Random House Dictionary of Popular Proverbs and Sayings (New York: Random House, 1996), p. 154

Available from: http://www.phrases.org.uk/bulletin_board/5/messages/266.html Accessed: 07/23/09

5Rudolf Flesch, The Art of Clear Thinking (New York, Hagerstown, San Francisco, London: Barnes & Noble Books, A Division of Harper & Row, Publishers, 1951, 1973), p. 154

6Encyclopedia of 15,000 Illustrations: Signs of the Times, ed. Paul Lee Tan “Start Of Commercial Arithmetic” (Dallas: Bible Communications, Inc., 1998) # 7868

7Ruth Gleeson Gallagher and James Colvin, Words Most Often Misspelled and Mispronounced (New York: Pocket Books, 1963)

8Brian Foley, Math Mojo-Making Math Meaningful, (© 2001-2003) Available from: http://www.mathmojo.com/abacus/mathmojowiththeabacus.html Accessed: 07/23/09

9The Reader’s Digest Great Encyclopedic Dictionary (Pleasantville, NY: The Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., 1969), p. 1

10Available from: http://wordage.info/abacus/ Accessed: 07/23/09

11Brian Foley, Math Mojo-Making Math Meaningful, (© 2001-2003)Available from: http://www.mathmojo.com/abacus/mathmojowiththeabacus.html Accessed: 07/23/09

12The Abacus, [Note: This is an excerpt from a free preview of the paper.] Available from: http://www.exampleessays.com/viewpaper/100839.html Accessed: 06/19/09

13Grace Church School website “Abacus”, Available from: http://www.gcschool.org/pages/program/Abacus.html Accessed: 07/23/09

14Maria Christensen, “Asia’s Brightest Moments”, (July 10, 1999), Available from: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/oriental_history/22522 Accessed: 06/19/09

15Totton Heffelfinger & Gary Flom, “Abacus: Mystery of the Bead“(© 2004 – 2007), Available from:

q=cache:BLd3q2hvEm8J:webhome.idirect.com/~totton/abacus/pages.htm+japanese+soroban+is+different+from+the+chinese+abacus&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us Accessed: 08/03/09

16The Complete Book of Everyday Christianity: An A-To-Z Guide to Following Christ in Every Aspect of Life, eds. Robert J. Banks & R. Paul Stevens (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1997), p. 199 Database WORDsearch Corp.

17Robert Duncan Culver, Systematic Theology: Biblical and Historical (Geanies House, Fearn, Ross-Shire, Great Britain: Christian Focus Publications, Ltd. © 2005) Database © 2008

WORDsearch Corp.

18Encyclopedia of 7,700 Illustrations: Signs of the Times, ed. Paul Lee Tan, “Back To The Abacus”

#6447 (Rockville, MD: Assurance Publishers, 1979, 1985

19Dr. John J. Davis, Biblical Numerology: A Basic Study of the Use of Numbers in the Bible (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1968, 1985), p. 50


21J.C. Keister, “Math and the Bible”, Available from: http://www.trinityfoundation.org/journal.php? id=55 Accessed: 08/03/09


23Billy Graham, “Cults keep people from God”, (Seattle, WA: Seattle Post-Intelligencer, June 19, 2006), Available from: http://www.religionnewsblog.com/14991/dr-billy-graham-cults-keep-people- from-god Accessed: 07/23/09

24“Cults—An Overview” Available from: http://www.lcms.org/graphics/assets/media/CTCR/Overview%20of%20Cults.pdf     Accessed:     08/03/09

25Billy Graham, “It’s easy to spot signs of a cult”© 2009 Tribune Media Services 7/23, Available from: http://www.kansascity.com/238/story/1338455.html Accessed: 07/23/09

26James Merritt, "Don't Believe The Lie About The Truth" 04/25/99 First Baptist Church, Snellville, Georgia


28Billy Graham, “The Sin of Tolerance” from a 1959 radio address,

[This article originally appeared in the February 2, 1959 issue of Christianity Today.]

Available from: http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2008/octoberweb-only/144-212.0.html Accessed: 08/03/09

29Billy Graham, “Make your life a witness for Christ to troubled students” (Mobile, AL: Press- Register, July 9, 2009 ), Section 2-D

30J. Vernon McGee “Faith + 0 = Salvation”, (Pasadena, CA: Thru the Bible Network, Revised 2006), Available    from:    http://www.thruthebible.org/atf/cf/%7B91e2424c-636c-40c2-9c55-890588e90ece% 7D/Faith%20+%200%20=%20Salvation.pdf Accessed: 08/03/09

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